Market Research? (For good or for ill.)

Brand Trump
Brand Martha
Brand Dubai (Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum)
Brand Apple/etc./etc./iPod (Steve)
Brand California Reborn (the Guvenator)

Surely these are among the more stunning Branding-Worldchanging stories of the last 20 years:

How many are the product of careful market research?
How many are the results of visionary insaniac dreamers?
How many are at least partially the product of rather well-developed egos?

(Are there any market-research driven stories of a similar magnitude? Starbucks???)